1. Relevant D2 Steel Specifications Country USA German Japan Standard ASTM A681 DIN EN ISO 4957 JIS G4404 Grades D2 1.2379 / X153CrMo12 SKD11 2. D2 Tool Steel Chemical Composition ASTM A681 C Mn PS Si Cr V Mo D2 1.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.1 0.6 11 13 0.5 1.1 0.7 1.2 DIN ISO 4957 C Mn PS Si Cr V Mo 1.2379 / X153CrMo12 1.45 1.6 0.2 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.15 1.6 11 13 0.7 1 0.7 1 JIS G4404 C Mn PS Si Cr V Mo SKD11 1.4 1.6 0.6 0.03 0.03 0.4 11 13 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.2 3. AISI Grade ...

Length: 3-5.8mm or customization
Surface: black, peeled, or rough chiseled
Heat treatment: air cooling, normalized, annealed, Q&T
Melting process: EDP + LF + VD

4. AISI / ASTM A681 D2 steel Forging

Heating for forging AISI D2 tool steel should
be done slowly and evenly. Soak at 1850 -1950 F and reheat as often
as necessary, stop operation when temperature drops below 1700 F (926 ). After D2,
die steel forgings, slowly cooled into lime, mica, dry ash or kiln. AISI D2 steel
should always be annealed after forging.

5. Tool Treatment D2 Steel Heat

Heat treatment

ASTM D2 steels must be preheated very slowly at 815oC (1500oF) and then the temperature can be increased to 1010oC (1850oF). They were then held at 1010oC (1850oF) for 20 to 45 minutes and air cooled (air cools).


Annealing of D2 tool steels material should be done at 871 to 898oC (1600 to 1650oF) followed by slow cooling in a 4.4oC (40oF) furnace per hour or less.after which the cooling rate can be increased. Suitable precautions should be taken to prevent excessive carburization or decarburization.

stress relief

When it is desired to lighten machining strains, thermal D2 steel grades slowly up to 1050 -1250 F, allow to flatten and then cool in still air (strain Relief).

Preheat before curing

Heat slowly to 1350 -1450 F and hold at this temperature until steel D2, material is not evenly heated.


After thoroughly preheating, heat to 1800 -1850 F. Keep the work piece at curing temperature until completely and evenly heated.


AISI D2, tool steel material is an air hardened steel and will develop hardness when cooled in still air. To avoid scaling and to prevent decarburization of the workpiece surface, a controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnace is recommended. If these ovens are not available, a hardening bag, salt bath or wrapping the piece in stainless steel foil will provide some degree of surface protection during the curing process. The parts should be able to cool down to 150F, or where they can be held in a bare hand, and then quenched immediately.


The tempering temperature of the material on D2 steel can vary depending on the desired hardness. D2 steels can be tempered at 204oC (400oF) to achieve a Rockwell C hardness of 61 and at 537oC (1000oF) for a Rockwell C hardness of 54.

6.D2 tool steel Material Application
AISI grade D2 tool steels are used for long term tooling applications where wear resistance is important, such as punching or forming dies and thread rolling dies.

Some major applications for D2 tool steel as below:

Blind Dies, Molding Dies, Embossing Dies, Slitting Cutters, Heading Tools, Long Punches, Rolling Rolls, Edging Rolls, Master Tools, Beading Rolls, Intricate Punches, Extrusion Dies, Dies, Lamination Dies, Thread Rolling Dies, Shear Blades, Shear Blades measuring instruments, Knurls, wear parts.

   AISI 8620 1,6523 | 21NiCrMo2 | SNCM220          20NiCrMo13-4 1.6660     ASTM 52100 | 1,3505 | 100Cr6 | SUJ2 | EN31       33NiCrMoV14-5 1.6956     

   AISI 4340 | 36CrNiMo4 | 1,6511 | EN24 | 817M40 | SNCM439      EN DIN 34CrNiMo6 | 1,6582 | 4337 Engineering Steel    BS EN 42CrMo4 | 1,7225 Alloy Steel  

   1,2379 | X153CrMo12 | SKD11      UNS S31254 1.4547 F44 Super Austenitic Stainless Steel      DIN 1.6657 14NiCrMo13-4 16NCD13 832M13 EN36C

   DIN1.6587 X4317 18CrNiMo7-6 17CrNiMo6 18NCD       DIN 1.6566 17NiCrMo6-4 18NiCrMo5 817M17 SAE4317       DIN 1.6657 14NiCrMo13-4 16NCD13 832M13 EN36C